Sunday, November 18, 2007

Goldman Sachs History 1999

Goldman Sachs is a leading global investment banking and securities firm with three principal business lines:

Investment Banking;

Trading and Principal Investments; and

Asset Management and Securities Services.
Our goal is to be the advisor of choice for our clients and a leading participant in global financial markets. We provide services worldwide to a substantial and diversified client base, which includes corporations, financial institutions, governments and high net worth individuals.

Because we believe that the needs of our clients are global and that international markets have high growth potential, we have built upon our strength in the United States to achieve leading positions in other parts of the world. Today, we have a strong global presence as evidenced by the geographic breadth of our transactions, leadership in our core products and the size of our international operations. As of February 1999, we operated offices in 23 countries and 36% of our 13,000 employees were based outside the United States.

We are committed to a distinctive culture and set of core values. These values are reflected in our Business Principles, which emphasize placing our clients' interests first, integrity, commitment to excellence and innovation, and teamwork.

Goldman Sachs is managed by its principal owners. Simultaneously with the offerings, we will grant restricted stock units, stock options or interests in a defined contribution plan to substantially all of our employees. Following the offerings, our employees, including former partners, will own approximately 65% of Goldman Sachs. None of our employees are selling shares in the offerings.

Goldman Sachs is the successor to a commercial paper business founded in 1869 by Marcus Goldman. Since then, we have grown our business as a participant and intermediary in securities and other financial activities to become one of the leading firms in the industry.

In 1989, The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. was formed to serve as the parent company of the Goldman Sachs organization. As of November 30, 1996, The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. was restructured. On that date, the non-retiring former general partners of The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. converted their general partner interests into limited partner interests and became profit participating limited partners of The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. Concurrently, The Goldman Sachs Corporation was admitted as The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P.'s sole general partner. The common stock of The Goldman Sachs Corporation is owned by our managing directors who are profit participating limited partners, all of whom are active in our businesses.

The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. was formed to succeed to the business of The Goldman Sachs Group, L.P. Simultaneously with the offerings, we will complete a number of transactions in order to convert from partnership to corporate form. See "Certain Relationships and Related Transactions — Incorporation and Related Transactions" for additional information concerning these transactions.

Market Share Data

Except as otherwise indicated, all amounts with respect to the volume, number and market share of mergers and acquisitions and underwriting transactions and related ranking information have been derived from information compiled and classified by Securities Data Company. Securities Data Company obtains and gathers its information from sources it considers reliable, but Securities Data Company does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the information. In the case of mergers and acquisitions, data are based upon the dollar value of announced transactions for the period indicated, taken as a whole, with full credit to each of the advisors to each party in a transaction. In the case of underwritings, data are based upon the dollar value of total proceeds raised (exclusive of any option to purchase additional shares) with equal credit to each bookrunner for the period indicated, taken as a whole. As a result of this method of compiling data, percentages may add to more than 100%.

Strategy and Principal Business Lines

Our strategy is to grow our three core businesses — Investment Banking, Trading and Principal Investments, and Asset Management and Securities Services — in markets throughout the world. Our leadership position in investment banking provides us with access to governments, financial institutions and corporate clients globally. Trading and principal investing has been an important part of our culture and earnings, and we remain committed to these businesses irrespective of their volatility. Managing wealth is one of the fastest growing segments of the financial services industry and we are positioning our asset management and securities services businesses to take advantage of that growth. Our assets under supervision, for example, have grown from $92.7 billion as of November 1994 to $369.7 billion as of February 1999, representing a compound annual growth rate of 38%.

Our business lines are comprised of various product and service offerings that are set forth in the following chart:

Primary Products and Activities by Business Line

Investment Banking
Trading and Principal Investments
Asset Management and
Securities Services

Investment Banking

— Equity and debt underwriting
— Financial restructuring
advisory services
— Mergers and acquisitions
advisory services
— Real estate advisory services

Trading and Principal Investments
— Bank loans
— Commodities
— Currencies
— Equity and fixed
income derivatives
— Equity and fixed
income securities
— Principal investments
— Proprietary arbitrage

Asset Management and
Securities Services

— Commissions
— Institutional and high net
worth asset management
— Margin lending
— Matched book
— Merchant banking fees
— Increased shares of merchant
banking fund income and gains
— Mutual funds
— Prime brokerage
— Securities lending

Investment Banking

Investment Banking represented 39% of 1998 net revenues and 35% of 1997 net revenues. We are a market leader in both the financial advisory and underwriting businesses, serving over 3,000 clients worldwide. For the period January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1998, we had the industry-leading market share of 25.3% in worldwide mergers and acquisitions advisory services, having advised on over $1.7 trillion of transactions. Over the same period, we also achieved number one market shares of 15.2% in underwriting worldwide initial public offerings and 14.4% in underwriting worldwide common stock issues.

Trading and Principal Investments

Trading and Principal Investments represented 28% of 1998 net revenues and 39% of 1997 net revenues. We make markets in equity and fixed income products, currencies and commodities; enter into swaps and other derivative transactions; engage in proprietary trading and arbitrage; and make principal investments. In trading, we focus on building lasting relationships with our most active clients while maintaining leadership positions in our key markets. We believe our research, market-making and proprietary activities enhance our understanding of markets and ability to serve our clients.

Asset Management and Securities Services

Asset Management and Securities Services represented 33% of 1998 net revenues and 26% of 1997 net revenues. We provide global investment management and advisory services; earn commissions on agency transactions; manage merchant banking funds; and provide prime brokerage, securities lending and financing services. Our asset management business has grown rapidly, with assets under supervision increasing from $92.7 billion as of November 25, 1994 to $369.7 billion as of February 26, 1999, representing a compound annual growth rate of 38%. As of February 26, 1999, we had $206.4 billion of assets under management. We manage merchant banking funds that had $15.5 billion of capital commitments as of the end of 1998.

We pursue our strategy to grow our three core businesses through an emphasis on:

Expanding High Value-Added Businesses

To achieve strong growth and high returns, we seek to build leadership positions in high value-added services for our clients. For example, we have substantially increased the number of professionals in investment banking to improve and expand our ability to execute mergers and acquisitions, initial public offerings and high-yield financings. In trading, we structure and execute large and complex transactions for institutional investors, pension funds and corporate clients around the world. In asset management, we emphasize equity and alternative investment products and use our established international presence to build a global asset management franchise.

Increasing the Stability of Our Earnings

We seek to balance the stability of our earnings with return on equity and long-term earnings growth. We believe our trading businesses are key ingredients to our success. While we plan to continue to grow our trading businesses, the financial market shocks of the past year underscored the importance of our strategy of emphasizing growth in our investment banking, asset management and securities services businesses. Through a greater relative emphasis on these businesses, our goal is to gradually increase the stability of our earnings.

Pursuing International Opportunities

We believe that our global reach will allow us to take advantage of growth in international markets. In Europe, for example, we anticipate that the recent establishment of the European Economic and Monetary Union will, over time, create a large pan-European market rivaling the U.S. capital markets in size and liquidity. We believe this will generate increased activity across our businesses in the region. In Asia, we believe that an increase in corporate restructurings and in the need for liquidity will increase our mergers and acquisitions and trading opportunities. In the longer term, we anticipate additional opportunities in asset management activities due to a shift we anticipate toward the privatization of pension systems and in demographics.

Leveraging the Franchise

We believe our various businesses are generally stronger and more successful because they are part of the Goldman Sachs franchise. Our culture of teamwork fosters cooperation among our businesses, which allows us to provide our clients with a full range of products and services on a coordinated basis. Our investment bankers, for example, refer clients who are selling their businesses to those in Goldman Sachs who manage wealth. In addition, our merchant banking investments in companies lead to future clients for investment banking.

Competitive Strengths

Strong Client Relationships

We focus on building long-term client relationships. In 1998, over 75% of our Investment Banking revenues represented business from existing clients. We also aggressively pursue new client relationships as evidenced by the over 400 investment banking transactions we completed for first-time clients in 1998. In our trading businesses, we structure and execute transactions across a wide array of markets and countries to meet our clients' needs. In our asset management business, we managed assets for three of the five largest pension pools in the United States as ranked as of September 30, 1998 by Pensions & Investments and maintain accounts for 41% of the 1998 "Forbes 400 List of the Richest Americans".

Distinctive People and Culture

Our most important asset is our people. We seek to reinforce our employees' commitment to our culture and values through recruiting, training, a comprehensive 360-degree review system and a compensation philosophy that rewards teamwork. We were ranked number seven in Fortune magazine's "The 100 Best Companies to Work for in America" in January 1999 and were ranked number three in Fortune magazine's 1999 "The Top 50 MBA Dream Companies", the highest-ranked investment banking and securities firm in each case.

Global Reach

Over the past decade, we have made a significant commitment to building a worldwide business. We have achieved leading positions in major international markets by capitalizing on our product knowledge and global research, as well as by building a local presence where appropriate. In doing so, we have become one of the few truly global investment banking and securities firms with the ability to execute large and complex cross-border transactions. We had the number one market share of 23.2% in cross-border mergers and acquisitions for the period January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1998. In addition, in Japan, we were the largest non-Japanese mutual fund manager as of the end of February 1999, according to The Investment Trusts Association.

No comments: